History | People | Library | Sites | About Search

Items in italics are non-Multics events included for historical context.

For more historical information, see Multics History. The site timeline is a graphical presentation of Multics site histories.

1944 Whirlwind at MIT: core memory, SAGE.
1957 Sputnik I.
MIT Computation Center running IBM 704.
1958 US DoD ARPA established; MIT President J R Killian Presidential Science Advisor.
1959 Prof. John McCarthy proposes time-sharing in memo to Prof. Philip M. Morse, director of the MIT Computation Center.
1961 Burroughs B5000 (Algol, dual CPUs, segmentation).
11/61 MIT Computation Center running IBM 709. Corby's team demonstrated 4-user tape CTSS.
05/62 Paper on CTSS presented at 1962 Spring Joint Computer Conference.
08/62 MIT Computation Center upgraded to IBM 7090. CTSS running on new hardware.
First Paper on Internet Concept by J. C. R. Licklider & Welden Clark, "On-Line Man Computer Communication".
09/62 BBN time-sharing system operational on Digital Equipment PDP-1.
10/62 Cuban Missile Crisis showed that US military systems needed improvement. ARPA IPTO established.
11/62 MIT Project MAC suggested by J. C. R. Licklider, IPTO director.
12/62 Ferranti Atlas (paging) (12/7/62).
01/63 Project MAC proposal submitted to ARPA by MIT Prof. R.M. Fano.
03/63 Project MAC authorized & funded by ARPA IPTO. ($3 million contract).
04/63 MIT Computation Center 7090 with second 32K memory, 1302 disk, 7750.
05/63 Initial JOSS service on JOHNNIAC at RAND.
06/63 Time-Sharing running at SDC on spare AN/FSQ-32 (funded by ARPA).
07/63 Project MAC summer study, using CTSS on Computation Center IBM 7090, attended by many computer scientists.
09/63 Project to establish a time-sharing system at Dartmouth begun by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz.
10/63 Project MAC IBM 7090 (red machine) installed running CTSS, later upgraded to IBM 7094 II.
1964 GE 635 group moves to Phoenix from Syracuse.
04/64 IBM announces System/360 (4/7/64).
05/64 DTSS brought up at Dartmouth on a GE-225/DATANET-30. (05/01/64, 4AM).
06/64 Corby's computer systems research group moved to Project MAC 5th floor 545 Tech Square.
08/64 General Electric selected as supplier for MAC GE-645 research machine, contract signed.
11/64 Bell Labs joins Multics project with MIT and GE.
1965 First inter-computer communication, between TX-2 and Q-32 (Marill and Roberts).
NSA RYE time-sharing system on Univac 494: provided multilevel security.
08/65 GE 635 delivered to Project MAC, 6.36 simulator running.
IBM announces TSS/360.
CTSS MAIL command available to users.
11/65 Special Multics session at Fall Joint Computer Conference, 6 papers presented.
06/66 Flag Day (06/14/66).
1967 WYLBUR and ORVYL developed at Stanford on 360/67.
EPL compiler developed by Doug McIlroy and R. H. Morris at BTL after Digitek failed to produce.
01/67 GE 645 delivered to Project MAC and BTL. (Segmentation and paging.)
CP-40/CMS running at IBM Scientific Center on 360/40.
03/67 GE 635 removed from Project MAC.
milestone phase .5 (file system on 645 simulator).
04/67 CP/CMS in service on 360/67 at Lincoln Labs.
05/67 MTS in service on 360/67 at Michigan.
TENEX begun at BBN.
10/67 Release 1 of TSS/360 on 360/67.
12/67 milestone phase 1 (single process boot on 645). (N. I. Morris, Van Vleck)
1968 GE Large Systems Department moves to Phoenix from Syracuse.
03/68 milestone A3 - 3 processes (Bob Rappaport).
04/68 IBM decommits TSS/360.
05/68 IBM releases CP/67 version 1 to 8 sites.
07/68 First Multics picnic in Groton MA.
08/68 RADC GE-645 installed.
10/68 Demonstrable Initial Multics milestone (8 users).
12/68 Multics self-hosting, console sessions in Tech Square.
moved MAC 7094 to MIT IPC, building 39.
01/69 EPL Subset for System Programming (REPL) standardized.
Limited Initial Multics milestone (12 users).
Integrated mini-GIM & TTY DIM into system.
04/69 Bell Labs drops out of Multics development.
Unix begun on PDP-7 at Bell Labs.
IBM un-decommits TSS/360.
05/69 file system 2.0.
06/69 milestone 3.0.10.
07/69 Experimental MIT use of Multics (Cambridge Project).
10/69 MSS 4.0 - Multics public at MIT: new PL1 compiler, new traffic control.
First ARPANet connection UCLA-SRI (10/29/69).
12/69 MSS 5.0 - DSU270's (10 MB disk).
03/70 MSS 6.0 - Revised command loop MSS 7.0 - page control rewrite.
DEC announces PDP-11 (3/28/70).
05/70 First Multics talk at GESHUA XI in Seattle (Van Vleck).
06/70 MSS 8.0 - pre-paging and post-purging.
TENEX on the air (6/15/70).
08/70 MSS 9.0 - new Directory Control, User Control.
Multics installed on RADC machine.
10/70 MSS 10.0 - new ttydim.
Honeywell buys GE computer division: the "merger".
11/70 MSS 11.0 - new init.
12/70 MSS 12.0 - Support for DSU170's.
MSS 13.0 - Associative Memory fix.
Unix ported to PDP-11 at Bell Labs.
1971 Software Factory on BCO 645 installed.
01/71 MSS 14.0 - Moved processes from ring 32 to ring 4.
Multics Symposium at MIT Jan 21-22.
04/71 MSS 15.0 - retrofit.
DTSS simulator using Dartmouth BASIC.
05/71 IBM decommits TSS/360 again.
09/71 MIT 645 Multics providing service on ARPANet (host #6) via GIMPSPIF.(RFC 0252).
RCA sells its computer division to Univac.
1972 Paris 645 installed at Bull on Av. Gambetta.
11/72 MIT 6180 delivered.
System M "6090" installed.
12/72 MSS 18.0. - ACL redo: CACLs eliminated.
1973 Honeywell Phoenix Multics Development Center (PMDC) opened.
01/73 Multics and H6180 announcement at Boston Museum of Science (01/17/73).
07/73 CTSS turned off at MIT IPC (07/20/73).
11/73 AFDSC installed.
12/73 MIT 6180 Multics connected to ARPANet (host #44) by ABSI.
Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie present Unix paper at 4th ACM SOSP, Yorktown Heights NY.
1974 CISL development machine installed.
01/74 MSS 22.0.
Ford installed.
05/74 GM Corporate (GMISCA) installed.
06/74 MR 1.0: First standard release. Compilers support EIS, BASIC, GCOS Simulator, DSS191. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN.
1975 RADC, BCO, System M upgraded to 6180s.
Bull Gambetta 645 deinstalled.
01/75 MR 2.0: CPU cache, NPS, 1600bpi tape, TN1200. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, tape.
03/75 MR 2.1: iox_, probe, trace, debug, On-line T&D. Enhanced administration & metering, GCOS.
06/75 MR 2.2: Secure Mail. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, BASIC, system tools.
09/75 MR 3.0: MCS, Scheduler, RCP, COBOL-74, SORT. Enhanced GCOS.
1975 Ford deinstalled.
07/75 University of Southwestern Louisiana (USL) installed.
1976 DCC, USGS Reston installed.
02/76 MSS 28.0: New storage system.
03/76 MR 3.1: AIM, DTSS Simulator, HEALS, 4 FNPs. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, COBOL, ALM, commands.
07/76 MR 4.0: New storage system, MRDS, MSU451, MERGE, 16MB SCUs. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, SORT, Graphics system, mail.
09/76 MR 4.0.1: Reconfiguration & Operator Interfaces.
12/76 MR 5.0: 4MW SCUs. Enhanced MCS, COBOL, FORTRAN, MRDS.
1977 Honeywell-MIT collaboration ends.
USGS Menlo Park and Denver installed.
Puerto Rican Highway Authority (PRHA) installed.
Industrial Nucleonics installed.
Apple Computer founded (01/03/77).
10/77 MR 6.0: tape, ESD, salvager, RJE, WORDPRO, 7 CPUs, multiple tape controllers. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, COBOL, MRDS, reliability & damage recovery.
1978 Ford installed again.
INRIA/Rocquencourt installed.
University of Grenoble installed.
VPI installed.
University of Calgary (UC) installed.
03/78 MR 6.1.
09/78 MR 6.5: Video Terminals, DN6670, IBM 3780, 4 FNPs, run units, resource reservation, remote station TTFs. Enhanced communication, FORTRAN optimizer.
11/78 Palyn Report presented to Honeywell management.
12/78 MR 6.5a: remote station TTFs. Enhanced G115 protocol.
Oakland University (OU) installed.
1979 ASEA, INRA, Renault, Bell Canada (Toronto and Dorval) installed.
01/79 Unix setuid patent issued (01/16/79).
Honeywell CNO installed (01/22/79).
03/79 MR 7.0: GTSS Simulator, TP, MSU0500, Tape Archive, T&D, tape archive, audit facility, T&D subsystem, 32 new terminal types. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, communications, bulk I/O.
06/79 MR 7.0a: L6 Concentrator, MTU0610 9 Track tape, Emacs, polled VIP7760. Enhanced APL.
09/79 MR 7.0b: Enhanced FIPS COBOL, WORDPRO.
Bristol & Bath (Avon) installed.
1980 Stratus formed, many Multicians leave CISL.
NWGS Level 68 development system installed at US Naval War College.
ASU, Dir. Prevision, EPSHOM, INSEE, IRT installed.
03/80 MR 8.0: VIP7801/7804, IBM 3270, Process Preservation, MSS0500, ORION support, Bulk Store removed. Enhanced communications, Emacs, GCOS TSS, COBOL, WORDPRO, MRDS, tape interface to PPS.
Site N (Flagship) installed 03/27/80.
12/80 MR 8.2: MSU0500/501. Enhanced: T&D, COBOL, PL/I, FORTRAN, BOS.
1981 VW (USA) installed in Honeywell space.
INSEE/Paris, CERAM, CICB, Culture, CICT, INRIA/Sophia installed.
08/81 IBM PC announced (8/14/81).
09/81 St Johns installed.
10/81 MR 9.0: DPS 8/70M CPUs, 8 FNPs, Executive Mail, CSU6601, MSP0611/0612, MTP0611. Enhanced BOS, COLTS/MTAR, COBOL, MRDS, WORDPRO.
12/81 Shutdown of Virginia Polytechnic Institute.
1982 DND Halifax installed (dual L68).
Bull Systeme X installed at Louveciennes (L68/DPS-8).
CIRIL, CNET, INRIA/Rennes, Mainz, HLR, SCSI installed.
VW shut down, deal canceled by VW corporate.
03/82 MR 9.1: Enhanced: T&D, HASP, Emacs, FORTRAN, Tape.
06/82 STC installed.
07/82 Honeywell PMDC moved from Camelback to DVCP in Phoenix.
10/82 MR 10.0: 4 IOMs, IOM Paged Mode, Dial-out, X.25, Forum, MTU0630. Enhanced HDLC & BSC to 72KB, record stocks, system recovery, forum command.
11/82 Cardiff (CJCC) installed.
1983 SNECMA, CICRP, INNPPP, Credit Lyonnais, SOZAWE, ONERA/CERT, SNECMA, ELF, LUT, Brunel, INPPP installed.
USGS Menlo Park shut down.
01/83 CNO upgraded to 8/70M.
03/83 UBCC installed.
04/83 CCVR installed.
06/83 Canadian DND (DDDS) installed.
09/83 CISL moves from Tech Square to Cambridge Center.
10/83 MR 10.1: Printers 901/1201, X.25 LAPB, Subsystem Utilities, EURCs 8001/8002/8004. Enhanced Video, tape, mail, MRDS, FNP memory.
ACTC installed.
DOCKMASTER installed.
1984 USGS Reston, Dir. Prevision, INSEE shut down.
Flower project started, new Multics machine.
01/84 MR 10.2: Satellite 6M, LINUS. Enhanced operator interface, crash analysis, EURC, APL, FIPS FORTRAN, GCOS simulator, MRDS, ARPANet, X.25.
02/84 ACTC becomes additional development site (2/3/84).
06/84 Special for Canada DND: IO reconfiguration.
1985 Almost 100 sites (Gintell ACM speech).
ASU, STC, USGS Denver, INRA, Renault, ELF shut down.
ONERA/Paris installed.
DND-H upgraded to triple 8-70M.
Bull System H (Hounslow) installed.
02/85 Flower canceled by Honeywell.
06/85 Multics development capped by Honeywell.
MR 11.0: B2 security, 32k Cache, FAMIS, Executive Forum, PC Support, Bootload Multics; 2741, 1050, and ARDS support removed. Enhanced IOM reconfiguration, disk interface, video, FORTRAN, BASIC, mail, dump analysis.
08/85 B2 Orange Book rating awarded to MR 11.0+ by NCSC (08/29/85).
10/85 Black armbands at HLSUA.
Multics Company spin-off (based on Flower) proposed at HLSUA.
Initial study for NOS (Opus) with MOD-400 group.
11/85 Multics Company spin-off dismissed by Honeywell.
12/85 McDonnell Douglas Transport Aircraft installed.
1986 EPSHOM, IRT, CERAM, INRIA/Sophia, Mainz, Credit Lyonnais shut down.
SEP installed.
North American Honeywell Bull integrated into Groupe Bull.
01/86 Opus (NOS/VS3) IPR-0 review at Honeywell.
05/86 CISL closed (5/22/86), Opus team to Honeywell Billerica.
07/86 NWGS DPS 8/70(M) installed at US Naval War College. Level 68 moved to SDF, Moorestown NJ, and got SMS workstations.
12/86 MR 12.0: BOS eliminated, IMU, FIPS tape & disk, C compiler.
1987 Shutdown of SNECMA, CICT.
Bull Systeme X moved to Rocquencourt.
NWGS TTGL (Dam Neck VA) and TTGP (San Diego) sites installed.
Honeywell System M moved from Camelback to DVCP location in Phoenix.
11/87 Bull takes over Honeywell computer division.
12/87 Shutdown of CNO (12/11/87).
1988 Shutdown of INRIA/Rennes, CICB, Culture, CIRIL, CNET, INNPPP, ONERA, INPPP, SOZAWE.
01/88 Shutdown of MIT Multics (MSS 38.3), eqpt to McDonnell (01/02/88).
04/88 Development transferred to ACTC (Calgary).
Opus canceled by Bull.
05/88 Shutdown of AFDSC system T (05/31/88).
07/88 Shutdown of Brunel University.
09/88 Shutdown of CICRP, Grenoble, Rennes.
11/88 MR 12.2: lint and make; TCP/IP support and inter-system mail.
10/88 Shutdown of Bristol & Bath (Avon) (10/10/88).
09/89 Shutdown of St Johns (SJU) (09/14/89).
Shutdown of RADC (09/30/89).
Shutdown of UBCC.
12/89 MR 12.3.
1990 Oakland University shut down.
Bell Canada Toronto, CCVR, SEP shut down.
01/90 Shutdown of ENWGS-SDF.
05/90 Shutdown of University of Southwestern Louisiana (USL).
12/90 MR 12.4 released.
1991 Linux begun by Linus Torvalds.
Shutdown of ABB (formerly Industrial Nucleonics).
03/91 Shutdown of Cardiff Joint Computing Centre (CJCC) (03/15/91).
07/91 Shutdown of Loughborough University.
Shutdown of ASEA Brown Boveri.
08/91 World Wide Web available (Tim Berners-Lee, CERN).
1992 Shutdown of Bull Systeme X and Honeywell BCO.
02/92 Shutdown of AFDSC system D (02/28/92).
03/92 Shutdown of INRIA.
Shutdown of AFDSC system M (03/31/92).
06/92 Shutdown of last AFDSC machine, system Z (06/30/92).
09/92 Shutdown of Site N (Flagship).
11/92 MR 12.5.
1993 Shutdown of Bell Canada Montreal.
04/93 News group alt.os.multics started by Magnus Olsson.
06/93 Shutdown of U of Calgary (UC) (06/16/93).
09/93 Shutdown of DDDS/ORAE (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) (09/03/93).
11/93 Shutdown of Honeywell System M (Phoenix) (11/28/93).
1994 Multicians website begun by Tom Van Vleck with much help and advice from Bernie Greenberg.
12/95 Shutdown of McDonnell Douglas (12/22/95).
04/96 Shutdown of last NWGS system, at US Naval War College.
04/97 Shutdown of Ford (04/25/97).
03/98 Shutdown of DOCKMASTER (03/31/98).
10/98 Shutdown of GM (10/20/98).
1999 PRHA no longer used?
06/99 DOCKMASTER hardware loaned by National Cryptologic Museum to the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA.
07/00 Shutdown of CGI (was Perigon (was ACTC)) (07/07/00).
10/00 Shutdown of DND-H (17:08Z 10/30/00).
11/07 Open Source for Multics is hosted at MIT, provided courtesy of Bull HN.
11/14 Harry Reed's Multics simulator booted Multics MR 12.5.
07/16 Professor Robert M. Fano passed away at the age of 98.
06/17 Release 1.0 of the Multics simulator released, along with Multics MR 12.6f.
07/19 Professor Fernando J. Corbató passed away at the age of 93.
09/19 Release 2.0 of the Multics simulator available.
07/21 Multics Release 12.7 for the Multics simulator available.